|Case of Mr. Crenshaw|
Mr. Crenshaw is a 77 year-old male who resides in an assisted living facility (ALF). He was evaluated three days ago in the Emergency Room (ER) for urinary tract infection presenting with increased lethargy. Mr. Crenshaw was started on antibiotic therapy and returned to the ALF. 48 hours later nurses from the ALF contact the on-call physician to report continued confusion and declining functional status. He is sent back to the ER and admitted to the hospital.
|Case of Mrs. Elliott|
Mrs. Elliott is a 74 year-old white female hospitalized after sustaining a right hip fracture. Her post-operative course has been complicated by nosocomial pneumonia presenting with fever and tachypnea. She was restless and confused last evening according to the nurses. After starting antibiotic therapy, she developed new onset seizures and is seen for consultation.
|Case of Mr. Perez|
Mr. Perez is a 76 year-old Hispanic male hospitalized for left total knee replacement necessitated by severe osteoarthritis. His hospitalization has been complicated by deep vein thrombosis (DVT) presenting with increased swelling and pain in his left lower extremity. Nursing staff report increased confusion in the past 18 hours. Mr. Perez has been trying to climb out of bed, is agitated, tugging on his Foley catheter, pushing at the staff, calling out for his family, and has not responded to redirection.
|Case of Mrs. Sellars|
Mrs. Sellars is an 82 year-old African-American female with multiple medical problems and recent complaints of increasing shortness of breath. She reports dyspnea with mild exertion and is unable to walk more than 1 block. She also complains of 2 pillow orthopnea but denies paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (PND), chest pain or worsening of her chronic lower extremity edema.